Superalloy Ingots by Vacuum Induction Melting

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PML is the manufacturer of high performance Nickel based super alloys and cobalt based super alloys with outstanding quality and on reproducible basis.

These qualities not only exhibits excellent mechanical strength but also shows high creep resistance.

These alloys also have corrosion resistance in very extreme environments.

Our metallurgical expertise with Controlled Melting ,State of Art Refining Process & alloy testings makes PML as unique supplier for these alloys.

Equipment: Vacuum Induction melting (VIM)

Make: Consarc- Inductotherm
Capacity: 50 Kg

Vacuum Induction melting (VIM) uses the principle of electromagnetic induction under vacuum for melting of metals.

Scope:

  • Manufacturers of super alloys, precious metals, special alloys for the electronics and Aerospace industry.
  • Precision casting with controlled melting and state of art refining process.
Melting services 2
Melting services
PML Alloys Matrix

Process

  • Before starting the melting process, a VIM furnace is charged with precharged raw material either in the normal atmosphere or under vacuum.
  • The charged material is then melted under vacuum.
  • Charging of trace elements for alloy adjustment is also possible without breaking the vacuum.
  • Online temperature measurement, Spectro and oxygen meter allows controlled melting and refining process till the desired composition specs of ingots are met.
  • The melt is poured in predesigned metallic mould with sophisticated automatic tilting mechanism under vacuum only.

Alloywise chemical composition and mechanical properties

Chemical composition (Typical) for Nickel & Cobalt base alloys in %
Alloy Ni Fe C S Mn Si Cu Cr Co Mo Al Ti Nb Others
Nickel 200 99.5 0.2 0.08 0.005 0.018 0.18 0.13 - - - - - - -
Nickel 201 99.5 0.2 0.01 0.005 0.018 0.18 0.13 - - - - - - -
Nickel 205 99.5 0.01 0.08 0.004 0.018 0.08 0.08 - - - - 0.03 - 0.05
Monel 400 64 2.5 max 0.02 max 0.02 max 1 0.05 max 32 - - - - - - -
Monel 500 63 2 max 0.02 max 0.01 max 1.5 max 0.5 30 - - - 2.9 0.6 - -
Inconel 600 72 8 0.15 max - 1 max - - 15.5 - - - - 3.7 -
Inconel 625 60.3 5 - - - - - 22 - 9 - - 3.7 -
Inconel 713 71.3 2.5 max - - 0.25 max 0.2 - 13 - 4.5 5.5 0.5 2.5 -
Inconel 718 52.5 19 - - - - - 19 - 3.1 0.5 0.9 5.1 -
18Ni300 18.5 66.7 - - - - - - 9 5 0.1 0.7 - -
Nimonic 80A 75.9 - - - - - - 19.5 1 - 1.4 2.3 - -
Hastelloy 276 58.5 6 0.01 - 1 0.08 - 15 - 16 - - - -
NIFE50 47.5 52.5 - - - 0.1 max - - - - - - - -
Ni80Fe20 79.5 16 - - 0.2 max 0.2 max - - - 4.5 - - - -
Fe49Co49V2 - 49 - - - - - - 49 - - - - V2
Mechanical properties for Nickel & Cobalt base alloys
Nickel alloy UTS 21 Deg cen(MPa) UTS 540 Deg cen(MPa) UTS 760 Deg cen(MPa) UTS 21 Deg cen(MPa) UTS 540 Deg cen(MPa) UTS 760 Deg cen(MPa) Tensile elongation at 21 Deg Cen% Tensile elongation at 540 Deg Cen% Tensile elongation at 760 Deg Cen% Remarks
Nickel 200 462 - - 148 - - 47 - - Chemical & Electronic industry
Nickel 201 403 - - 103 - - 50 - - Chemical & Electronic industry
Nickel 205 345 - - 90 - - 45 - - Chemical & Electronic industry
Monel 400 545 - - 207 - - 48 - - Corrosion resistant alloy
Monel 500 669 - - 338 - - 44 - - Corrosion resistant alloy
Inconel 600 660 560 260 285 220 180 45 41 70 Super alloys
Inconel 625 965 910 550 490 415 415 50 50 45 Super alloys
Inconel 713 758 - - 689 - - 3 - - Super alloys
Inconel 718 1435 1275 950 1185 1065 740 21 18 25 Super alloys
18Ni300 1034 - - 758 - - 18 - - Maraging steel
Nimonic 80A 1000 875 600 620 530 505 39 37 17 Super alloys
Hastelloy 276 750 - - 310 - - 30 - - Super alloys
NI50FE50 500 - - 250 - - 40 - - Soft magnetic alloy
Ni80Fe20 650 - - 280 - - 35 - - Soft Magnetic alloy
Fe49Co49V2 600 - - 400 - - 5.5 - 49 Soft Magnetic alloy

Process capability

Input : Batch size Output Alloying Elements Chemistry tolerance Impurities Max
30 kgs to 50 Kgs Ingot of required size and shape. Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Cu , Al, Mo, Nb, Ti, V, Si +/- 0.5 % for Higher level % (Above 2 digit) and +/- 0.3 % for lower level % (Single digit) Oxygen < 30 ppm, Hydrogen < 10 ppm,
Nitrogen < 30ppm,
All other impurities < 30 ppm 
including carbon

Benefits

  • It is possible to melt and cast ingots / bars of required size and composition.
  • Ensures highest quality on a reproducible basis.
  • Possible to restrict gas impurities to the lowest negligible levels. Non ferrous impurities (Sn, Zn, Pb, Sb) evaporates completely in vacuum at high temperatures.
  • State of art process reduces non metallic oxide inclusions in the final alloy.
  • Ready to use ingots for further processing like powder manufacturing for MIM, Strip manufacturing by hot and cold rolling, forging etc.

FAQ for Super Alloys

Q.1. What is super alloy?
  • Ans: A super alloy is a high-performance material known for its exceptional mechanical strength, resistance to high temperatures, corrosion, and oxidation. These alloys are predominantly used in extreme environments such as aerospace, automotive, power generation, and chemical processing industries.
Q.2. Types of Super alloy?
  • Ans: -There are primarily two types of super alloys: nickel-based and cobalt-based.

    Nickel-Based Super Alloys: These alloys contain nickel as the base metal and are reinforced with elements like chromium, iron, cobalt, and molybdenum. They exhibit excellent strength, corrosion resistance, and thermal stability, making them ideal for turbine engines, aircraft components, and chemical processing equipment.

    Cobalt-Based Superalloys: Cobalt-based super alloys contain cobalt as the primary constituent along with elements like chromium, tungsten, and nickel. They are valued for their exceptional strength at high temperatures and resistance to corrosion, making them suitable for gas turbine blades, medical implants, and industrial tools.

Q.3. How are they manufactured?
  • Ans: The manufacturing process of super alloys involves several stages:
    1. Alloy Design
    2. Melting and Casting
    3. Primary Processing
    4. Heat Treatment
    5. Secondary Processing
    6. Quality Control
Q.4. What are the characteristics of Super alloy & why are they Important?
  • Ans: In designing, fabricating, and testing shields, the following parameters are essential to developing the best “strategy” for shield design and for predicting how the magnetic shield will perform in attenuating magnetic fields.
    1. High Temperature Resistance
    2. Mechanical Strength
    3. Corrosion Resistance
    4. Oxidation Resistance
    5. Thermal Stability
    6. Wear Resistance
Q.5. What are the applications of Super alloy?
  • Ans: Super alloys find extensive applications across various industries due to their exceptional mechanical properties, high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, and other unique characteristics. Some of the key applications of super alloys include:
    1. Aerospace Industry
      • Gas turbine engines:

        Super alloys are used in the manufacture of turbine blades, vanes, combustors, and other components due to their ability to withstand high temperatures, mechanical stresses, and corrosive environments.

      • Aircraft structural components:

        Super alloys are employed in critical structural components such as landing gear, wing structures, and engine mounts, where high strength, fatigue resistance, and corrosion resistance are essential.

      • Rocket propulsion systems:

        Super alloys are utilised in rocket engines and thrust chambers to withstand extreme temperatures and mechanical stresses during launch and space exploration missions.

    2. Power Generation
      • Gas turbines:

        Super alloys are used in gas turbine components, including blades, rotors, and casings, to generate electricity in gas-fired power plants. Their high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance contribute to the efficiency and reliability of power generation systems.

      • Steam turbines:

        Super alloys are employed in steam turbine blades, rotors, and other components to convert thermal energy into mechanical energy in steam-powered power plants.

    3. Oil and Gas Industry

      Drilling and extraction equipment: Super alloys are used in drilling components, valves, and pumps for oil and gas exploration and production operations. Their corrosion resistance and high strength make them suitable for use in harsh offshore and subsea environments. Refining equipment: Super alloys are utilised in refining equipment such as reactors, heat exchangers, and piping systems, where they resist corrosion and withstand high temperatures and pressures encountered in the refining process.

    4. Chemical Processing
      • Chemical reactors:

        Super alloys are employed in the construction of chemical reactors, vessels, and piping systems for the production of chemicals and petrochemicals. Their resistance to corrosion and oxidation ensures the integrity and reliability of equipment in corrosive chemical environments.

      • Catalysts:

        Some super alloys are used as catalyst supports in chemical processes due to their high surface area, thermal stability, and resistance to poisoning by reactants and by-products.

    5. Automotive Industry
      • Turbochargers:

        Super alloys are used in turbocharger components, including turbine wheels and compressor wheels, to withstand the high temperatures and mechanical stresses associated with turbocharging systems in internal combustion engines.

      • Exhaust systems:

        Super alloys are employed in exhaust manifolds, catalytic converters, and other exhaust system components to withstand high temperatures and corrosive exhaust gases.

    6. Medical Devices
      • Orthopaedic implants:

        Certain superalloys, such as titanium-based alloys, are used in orthopaedic implants such as hip implants, knee implants, and spinal implants due to their biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties.

      • Surgical instruments:

        Super alloys are utilised in the manufacture of surgical instruments such as forceps, scissors, and retractors due to their strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion.

Q.6. What makes super alloys Unique ?
  • Ans: Super alloys possess several unique characteristics that set them apart from conventional alloys and make them highly desirable for demanding applications. These characteristics include:
    1. High Temperature Resistance:

      Super alloys maintain their mechanical strength, hardness, and structural integrity at elevated temperatures, often exceeding 1000°C. This property is crucial for applications in aerospace, power generation, and industrial processes where components are exposed to extreme heat.

    2. Corrosion and Oxidation Resistance:

      Super alloys exhibit exceptional resistance to corrosion and oxidation, even in aggressive environments containing acids, alkalis, and corrosive gases. This resistance ensures the longevity and reliability of components in chemical processing, marine, and aerospace applications.

    3. Mechanical Strength and Toughness:

      Super alloys possess high tensile strength, fatigue resistance, and toughness, enabling them to withstand heavy loads, cyclic stresses, and impacts without deformation or failure. This property is essential for critical components in turbine engines, automotive systems, and medical implants.

    4. Creep Resistance:

      Super alloys demonstrate excellent creep resistance, meaning they can withstand prolonged exposure to high temperatures and constant mechanical stresses without undergoing significant deformation or creep. This property is vital for components subjected to long-term thermal cycling and mechanical loading, such as turbine blades and engine components.

    5. Thermal Stability:

      Super alloys maintain their mechanical properties and dimensional stability over a wide range of temperatures, ensuring consistent performance under varying operating conditions. This thermal stability is essential for components exposed to rapid temperature changes, thermal cycling, and thermal shock.

    6. Compatibility with Harsh Environments:

      Super alloys are compatible with harsh environments containing corrosive chemicals, high pressures, and extreme temperatures, making them suitable for applications in aerospace, oil and gas, and chemical processing industries.

Q.7. What are the limitations of Super alloy ?
  • Ans: While super alloys offer exceptional properties and performance in demanding environments, they are not without limitations. Some of the key limitations of super alloys include:
    1. High Cost:

      Super alloys are generally more expensive than conventional alloys due to the use of expensive alloying elements such as nickel, cobalt, and chromium. The high cost of raw materials, combined with the sophisticated manufacturing processes required, contributes to the overall expense of super alloy components.

    2. Limited Availability of Raw Materials:

      Some alloying elements used in super alloys, such as cobalt and certain rare earth metals, may have limited availability or face supply chain constraints. This can affect the cost and availability of super alloys, particularly during periods of increased demand or geopolitical instability.

    3. Difficulty in Machining

      Super alloys are notoriously difficult to machine due to their high hardness, toughness, and heat resistance. Machining super alloy components requires specialised equipment, tooling, and machining techniques, which can increase production costs and lead times.

    4. Environmental Concerns:

      The mining and refining of raw materials used in super alloys, as well as the energy-intensive manufacturing processes involved, can have environmental impacts such as resource depletion, pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts to mitigate these environmental concerns include recycling and sustainable sourcing practices.

    5. Brittleness at Low Temperatures:

      While super alloys exhibit excellent mechanical properties at high temperatures, they may become brittle at low temperatures, especially below their ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. This can pose challenges in applications where components are subjected to rapid temperature changes or cryogenic conditions.

    6. Limited Formability:

      Super alloys may have limited formability compared to conventional alloys, making them less suitable for certain forming processes such as deep drawing or cold rolling. This can restrict their use in applications requiring complex shapes or intricate geometries.

    7. Potential for Embrittlement:

      Some super alloys may be susceptible to embrittlement under certain conditions, such as prolonged exposure to high temperatures, aggressive environments, or hydrogen exposure. This can compromise the mechanical properties and structural integrity of components over time.

    8. Complex Microstructure:

      Super alloys often have complex microstructures consisting of multiple phases, precipitates, and grain boundaries. While these microstructures contribute to the alloys' desirable properties, they can also introduce challenges in terms of alloy design, processing, and performance prediction.